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How to Lie Statistics By DARRELL HUFF

DARRELL HUFF wrote the book “HOW TO LIE WITH STATISTICS” to make people able to ask questions about statistics is a proper way it makes people understand many hidden ploys of statistics. It is a manual to understand some cheating in statistics.

I do not expect any rehabilitation- A case study of a Sex worker in Dhaka City

XX is thirty. She is divorced and mother of a ten years old son. XX was born at Dinajpur district, northern part of Bangladesh. Her husband divorced her seven years back. XX has studied up to primary level. XX’s son works in a chocolate factory. She along with her son resides in . Her son does not know about her profession of brothel. XX said that five years back she used to work in a rice mill and worked there also on overtimes. One night she was called by the manager to his room to collect her wage and going there she found that the manager locked the door and proposed her to entertain him.

Recommendation to Overcome From Obstacles for SWOP

    • To ensure sustainability of the SWOP.
    • To ensure proper fund / donors for SWOP
    • To ensure the residential nurses for the welfare of the patient.
    • Establish hostel facilities for the patients more than one attendant.
    • Increase health facilitator and ambulance services for the patient.
    • Make health awareness among the patient.
    • Ensure good relationships with renewed Medical specialists, experts, Hospitals, clinics and pathological / Diagnostic centers.

    Problems of SWOP

    Although SWOP provides all types of health facilities to the patient though it has some limitations.

      Limitation of SWOP resources:

    SWOP has no own found. It is directed by the ADP fund and other donor agencies. As a result it can not provide services to family.

    Contribution of SWOP in Medical Social Work of Bangladesh

    Social Welfare Outreach Project (SWOP), is a special Health care project of World Vision Bangladesh. The project had started in 1985 and mostly served secondary and tertiary health services to the poor and oppressed sponsored, non-sponsored children and their families, and community members who came from different world vision project areas.

    Present Situation of Health Services in Bangladesh

    Govt. Sector:
    The services rendered by the government through the government hospital are far away from the rural poor people. They can not avail the services from the hospital for the corruption of health sectors. In resent time there are 92010 registered doctors in Bangladesh. The ratio of doctor: population is 7:3950. The registered nurses are 22000. There are 280 Govt. hospital in Bangladesh.

    Health Structure of Bangladesh

    The medical care services in Bangladesh are not enough, as we need. The health care services in Bangladesh are characterized with the shortage of doctors and nurses, medical institute, medicine and other medical equipment. People from the well-off family get the services from any private hospitals and clinics.

    Scope of Medical Social Work in Bangladesh

    In Bangladesh, the department of social service operates hospital social service programs. There are many scope of medical social work in our country. Now we can discuss about the scope –

    Medical Social Work in Bangladesh

    • In 1954: In Bangladesh Medical social work introduces at the middle of twentieth century. The UNO and the Red Cross helped to run an experimental medical social work program in Dhaka Medical College.
    • In 1959 : After the formation of national council of social work the peace of speediness of medical social work continues.

    Historical Perspective of Medical Social Work

    The emergence of medical social work has been partly the result of an evolutionary process and partly the profession’s reaction to the changing situation and needs of health care system. The necessity of medical social work practice in health sector was first felt in England in the 1885 when discharged patients of mental hospitals needed after care in their homes to avoid recurrence of illness. Visitors went to the patients home and advised family and friends about the necessary care of the patient.

    Concept of Medical Social Work

    Medical social work is a method of modern social work by which social work knowledge, methods and strategies are used in medical sector.
     According to, Robert L. Barker 1995 has defined – “The medical social work practice that occurs in hospitals and other health care Settings to facilitate good health, prevent illness, and aid physically ill patients and their families to resolve the social and psychological problems related to the illness.”

    Problems and Prospects of Medical Social Work in SWOP

    Medical social work is a sub discipline of social work. It provides a comprehensive service for human beings. It covers all the aspects of human life, like economic, social, health care, recreational and emotional settings. The development of social work profession was started from medical setting. With the increased understanding that illness can be caused or execrated by a variety of social or psychological factors. social work has gained a more central role in this field.

    Strategies of SWOP in providing services

    • We register the patients names with other information & case history in our record Books/files;
    • „ Arrange accommodations in the SWOP Hostel as long as they need to stay for their diagnosis and Treatment purposes;
    • „ The concerned Child Care Officers consult/liaise with appropriate Physicians/Hospitals/Clinics/Chambers and make appointment with them;

    Administrative Structure of SWOP

    Project Manager 1 person
    Accounts Officer 1 person
    Health Program Organizer 1 person
    Child Care Officer 2 persons
    Health Facilitator 2 persons


    * Contact Doctors/Clinics/Hospitals for facilitating necessary Diagnosis/Investigations and Medical Treatments and follow up for referral patients coming from ADPs.
    * Arrange short-term accommodation with appropriate diet/food and serve with other necessary services during their stay at SWOP Hostel.
    * Arrange Pathological Investigations, Medicine support, appropriate diet/food and other necessary services for the patients who are under treatments in different clinics/ Hospitals.

    Goal and Objectives of SWOP

    To assist the ADPS and Special Projects of WVB to ensure curative Health Services by coordinating and implementing Secondary and Tertiary level of Treatments of the patients for improving the health status of the community of the respective ADPS/Projects

    Activities of World Vision Bangladesh

    Activities of World Vision Bangladesh are mentioned below by turns: 

    Started programs in Sandip, Hatia & different coastal areas through giving relief.
    The refugee of Bangladesh who were in India were provided service.
    Assistance for the rehabilitation and infrastructural development  in Mymensingh.
    Started 18 new projects.

    World Vision Bangladesh

    World Vision is an international partnership of Christians whose mission is to follow our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ in working with the poor and oppressed to promote human transformation, seek justice and bear witness to the good news of the kingdom of God.

    Background of Social Welfare Outreach Project

    Social Welfare Outreach Project (SWOP) is a special Health Care Project of World Vision Bangladesh. This project started in May 1985 with a view to provide secondary and Tertiary medical assistance to the children and adults of the WVB projects with preference to the Sponsored children who are medically and physically handicapped.

    What is Social Welfare Outreach Project (SWOP)

    Social Welfare Outreach Project (SWOP) is a special Health Care Project of World Vision Bangladesh. The Project started in 1985 and mostly served secondary and tertiary health services to the poor and oppressed Sponsored, Non-sponsored children and their families, and community members who come from different WV project areas. World Vision Hong Kong has been funding it since the inception of the Project.

    Scope of social work

    Development setting:
    In development setting tries to develop the socio-economic condition of the poor people. They provide micro finance and training for the empowerment    of the women.

    Child welfare service:
    Main purposes are stopping child labor providing vocational training job based training and rehabilitation of illicit baby. Day care child care baby home and SOS children village provide services for the child of the society.


    Social workers should treat colleagues with respect and should represent accurately and fairly the qualifications, views, and obligations of colleagues.

    Code of Ethics of field Practice

    Social Workers’ Ethical Responsibilities to Clients

    Commitment to Clients
    Social workers’ primary responsibility is to promote the well-being of clients. In general, clients’ interests are primary.

    Aims and Objectives of Field Practicum

    The objective of field work program in social work education is to provide the student with actual experience in applying social work methods and enable him/her to become familiar with the real work of practice that is, to relate academic theory to concrete reality as found in the agency setting

    Concept of Field Practicum

    The pattern of social work education, of which field work is an integral part, in our country is in most part borrowed from the west. Field work is essential relating to the existing conditions at the agency level- its policies and programs, its resources, personnel, the supervisory practices etc. It is considered to be an integral part of social work education. In this process we get opportunity to apply theoretical knowledge and techniques in the field to meet the social problems. Here some definitions may be cited given by different scholars.

    Concept of Social Work

    Social work is one of the applied and recent branch of knowledge which deals with the scientific solution and treatment of the psycho-social problems. Social work as a profession seeks to enhance the social functioning of individuals, singly and in groups. By resorting various types of activities it focus upon their social relationships which constitute the interaction between man and his environment. (Ray, 2009-10) Some scholars have ventured to find their own definitions regarding the term social work. Some of definitions may be cited here,

    A Case of a sex worker in Dhaka City.

    X is twenty. She is married for 5 years and mother of a four years old daughter. X was born at Island district Bhola. X is illiterate. Her husband knows about her profession of brothel and allows her to do so, as he is quite dependent on her earnings. X along with her family resides in a slum of Dhaka City railway station. She picked up this profession 3 years back. When X was in the third year of her marriage her husband brought a few of his drunken friends to their house and allowed them to enjoy sex with his wife by force and from then on X was left with no choice except brothel.

    Background Information of Floating Sex Workers in Dhaka City

    Brothel is the oldest profession, and the existing of selling female sex for the gratification of males is also one of the oldest vices in society (Joarder, 1984:12). Among the reasons behind the beginning and sustaining of the profession, the subordination and weaker position of women in the socio-economic structure of society can be assumed as most significant. The profession could not sustain unless there was any demand from the males. Again, throughout the history, economic interests led conflict, war, and conquest that in many respects paved the way to women’s subjugation, forced sexual exploitation, and labeling as sex workers class.

    What is a Brothel

    Since male dominance and patriarchy are widely recognized factors for so many facets of gender discrimination gender violence, the brothel is very much a related phenomenon to unequal gender relation. Because of the state being patriarchal, there is a link between state and brothel. That’s why Khan and Arefeen in their study titled ‘‘State and Brothel: An observation”, discussed brothel from the Feminist perspective” (Khan and Arefeen, 1988: 59-80).

    Historical background of sex worker

    The history of brothel extends to all ancient and modern cultures (Jenness, 1990 & Bullough, 178). It has been described as "the world's oldest profession” (Keegan, 1974). However, this is only a matter of speech. Most would dispute this claim, supported by the argument that hunting and farming likely took place first in human history. This aside, hunting and farming are not professions unless done for profit.

    Relationship between Peace and Development

    Development is the precondition for establishing peace. So peace is impossible without development which means that there is a close relation between development and peace. Whenever development is ensured, peace is automatically established at that time. In this way, development always helps to sustain peace. Whereas poverty is a course which diminishes an individual’s faith in his capability and, in turn perpetuates inequality. The inequality threatens the social fabrics, and jeopardizes peace and security in any society. With reference to this connection, “micro credit is not a panacea for all poverty reduction problems but it is the beginning to an end, and not an end by itself.”[1]

    Explanation of Poverty, Peace and Development

    Poverty: Poverty is the crudest form of denial of opportunities and choices to human development. It is a vicious circle, has a long standing history. Still today, it exists as a curse. Poverty prevailed in the past, it exists no’s and it is likely to remain in the future as a course on the human society. Therefore, poverty free world may not be attained through eradications but it must be alleviated to a humane standards and tolerance.

    Define Micro Credit

    Credit is one of the ancient thinking of human civilization. It has attained place in the centre of poverty and Bangladesh has become the motherland of micro credit program for the poor. About its suitable and fitting definition, it is generally said “Micro credit is a tiny collateral free loans aimed at the poorest of the poor to help them start or expand their self-employment pursuits.[1] For further clarification, Dr. Yunus Says, “Micro-credit is a well tried and well founded method that can bring financial services to the poorest of the poor. Micro credit promotes entrepreneurship, and pits each individual poor person, especially women, in the driving- seat in their own lives. Micro-credit is more about people than about money. It is a question of trusting people. Credit means to trust, to give someone credit.[2]

    The Evolution of Micro credit Programs in Bangladesh

    Micro credit is one of the ways of poor to acquire assets and to become productive. This kind of program was first attempted in 1976, when Professor Dr. Muhammad Yunus[1]. a Bangladeshi economics and first Nobel laureates, introduced an experimental project to best whether the poor were creditworthy physical collateral.

    Micro Credit in Bangladesh

    Micro-credit is an important field for improving the economic life of the poor. It is now familiar in many countries because it has attracted the view of the common people after getting recognition by the Nobel Laureate Committee. Nevertheless, most of the people in the world are seriously stricken with the dearth of poverty even in the developed countries in some context. Otherwise it has generally been considered in the last two years as a commendable idea in the developing countries “At the beginning when micro-credit was first introduced here it was given to the men with the subsequent change to women which introduced changes with regard to their economic dependence, limited income opportunity and mobility.” It has been a different dimension since a large number of people across the world remains under the destitute situation of abject

    How we can practice democracy- A way out

    Democracy is a continuous political process which can not be established overnight. Todays Western democracies could not be developed in a day, month or year. It took long period of centuries after centuries. Same is in case of Bangladesh. Democracy can be sustained and developed in Bangladesh only by giving due attention to certain both institutional and structural issues such as:

    Reasons behind Dropout of Female Students

    Early marriage is the most predominant reason behind the dropout of female students from schools. Though the minimum official age for marriage in Bangladesh is 18 for women and 21 for men, marriage especially in rural areas and among the poorer section of the populace occurs before the age limit.

    The Effects of Poverty on Educational Attainment of Children

    Investment in education depends on the demand for and supply of education, the demand being affected by benefits of education and supply by costs of education. In Bangladesh, social benefits of education are especially high for primary level, but for individual households in rural areas it is the secondary education that gives high returns. Private costs of education at primary level are negligible because of state subsidies and low opportunity cost in terms of foregone earnings of children.

    High School Dropout Problems in Bangladesh

    The secondary level of education in Bangladesh is particularly plagued by dropout problem. The severity of the dropout issue prompted the Bangladesh Bureau of Educational Information and Statistics (BANBEIS) to carry out an in-depth study in 2002. As reported in the leading national newspaper, The Daily Star, the study revealed, “dropout rates at secondary and higher secondary levels of education remain alarmingly high despite government efforts to reduce the rates. over 80 percent (of) high school students quit schools without having their secondary school certificates (SSC) while 36.52 percent (of) intermediate

    Costs Representing the Supply of Education

    Private costs both direct and indirect costs are affected by public policies, the incidence of child labor and labor market conditions. If there is a high demand for child labor in the labor market, opportunity costs of keeping children at school will be high for poor families. Gender differences in costs and benefits may also arise depending on the role of women in the economy, society and the family.

    The Impact of Income on Educational Investment

    Investment in educational human capital in developing countries may be studied using Becker´s framework for the demand and supply of human capital. The demand represents the present discounted value of benefits (labour market earnings), and the supply represents the present discounted costs of education (school fees, travel costs, opportunity costs in terms of foregone earnings).There are several points attached to the issue of demand that are important.

    Conceptual Issues Relating To Poverty and Education

    The study of poverty and education is difficult not only because of the circular nature of the relationship. It is complex because poverty has many dimensions that are affected by education. Poverty signifies lack of income, and deprivation in terms of political and civil rights, voice, freedom of choice, and the quality of life based on health and education. While education is a goal in itself, it can be instrumental to poverty alleviation working not only through income but through its influence on other dimensions of poverty.

    Education in Bangladesh

    Bangladesh has been facing daunting challenges in education. Although over the years, mention-worthy progress has been made at the primary level of education. Education at the secondary and tertiary levels have remained beset with a number of serious problems, such as poor enrolment rate, high dropout rate and low success rate in tests of academic capabilities. The end result is that, by some estimates, only 3 out of 100 every 100 potentially eligible young men and women in Bangladesh complete their graduation. This statistics has alarming implications both for the young people in a poor country like Bangladesh as well as for the progress of the nation in general. Such startling information can only help dampen the most of Bangladeshis when we know that the largest foreign exchange earnings come from the hard work and the sweat of the migrant labor of Bangladesh.

    Role of civil society- Democracy

    Now a day’s civil society plays very important role in successful working of democracy in Bangladesh. There are many civil society organizations like Center For Policy Dialogue(CPD), Sushasoner Jonno Nagarik (SUJAN) active in the country which are making efforts to make the mass people conscious about their rights and duties enshrined in the constitution and also mobilize public opinion by organizing seminars, workshops and symposium on the contemporary issues and problems facing the country.

    Women Empowerment- Democracy

    The constitution of Bangladesh contains the provision of gender equality, prohibition of gender-based discrimination and extension of opportunity of women in all spheres of civic life. It is also stated in the constitution that the local government institutions be composed of representatives of peasants, workers and women (Article 9, 10); right to guaranteed employment at a reasonable wage having regard to the quality of life [article 15 (b)]. Our political parties are fond of making room for women in their party politics.

    Promotion of Economic Growth- Democracy

    Now-a-days, Bangladesh is doing well in the economic sector marked in the reasonable macro economic stability. Bangladesh has been experiencing around 6 percent economic growth despite global recession for many years. It has also achieved near self sufficiency in food production.

    Advancement of Education System- Democracy

    It is gratifying to that Bangladesh has much headway in expanding coverage access to basic education with a view to building a knowledge-based society. For the first time in its history more that 98 percent of the children have started going to school. Gender parity in primary enrollment is almost a reality now.

    Report on Independence of press, media and newspaper-Democracy

    Today, press, media and newspapers become freer that ever before. They are enjoying the independence except government-owned Radio and TV. The press and media are now vocal against any wrongdoings committed by the government. They don’t hesitate to criticize the government if it tend to undertake any policies and programme which is anti interest of the mass people. So we can say it is another light of hopes for democracy.

    Independence of Judiciary-Democracy

    It is heartening that judiciary has become independent and free of the clutch of the executive and legislature in Bangladesh through implementing the historic Masder Hussain Case in November, 2007. Now, judiciary has been working more freely and fairly than earlier and thereby helps to establish rule of law in the country.

    Well Functioning of Parliamentary Committees

    From the very beginning of the 9th parliament, parliamentary Standing Committees has been formed with non-minister at the helm of them. Even chief of few standing committees has been made from amongst the   oppositions which is good sign for democracy in the country. These committees have been allowed to work independently following the Rules of Procedure and their reports and recommendation are also duly considered prior the undertaking policies and programmes.