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Psychological counseling and consultation Beliefs and rituals of Children of Sex Workers (CSW)

At every shelter home there is facility of PCC. They come forward to providing mental support to children. And they try to resolve their problem. Those who do not live in shelter home, they also get such facility. They are counseled on teenage issues, childhood love, mental distress and many more issues. They are informed about the prevailing privileges for them They are developed in such a way so that they become acceptable to the society. They are made aware of their rights. They are taught about the responsibilities of a citizen. The sense of basic human rights is strengthened among them.

Beliefs and rituals of Sex Workers (CSW)

In past, prostitutes and their children were buried without observing religious rituals. Hindus were buried and Muslims were burnt. Or else they were made float in the river. But at present, separate graveyard has been built and Janaja prayer is held for the departed soul. Hindus are burnt following rituals. Most of the CSWs practice rituals. They say prayer, keep fast and read the Holy Quran. They regularly go to the mosque and temple. The hujur or caregivers encourage them to observe rituals. They seek help from the almighty while they are in danger.

Reduction of various obstacles of Sex Workers (CSW)

In past CSW, would not get access to any school. Now, they can easily find access to higher studies. They could not move into public places, now they can. Girls would get involved in prostitution and boys would get involved into smuggling, drug trafficking. But now they have choice of alternative profession. They did not have any facility of receiving treatment from hospitals. Now, they get such facility. Now, CSW are advancing towards bright future encroach all hindrances.

Access to health-care of Children of Sex Workers (CSW)

Children are informed as well as taught about different diseases. They are also taught about how to prevent and immune from such diseases. Most of the children know about how to take preventive measure for some common diseases like fever. They know about cleanliness and nutrition. If someone fells sick, residential doctor, office staffs and other mates take care of him. “Shelter Homes” usually have fast aid arrangement. If someone falls into heavy sickness, he or she is then hospitalized.

Empowerment of Children of Children of Sex Workers (CSW)

Problems of children cannot be traced unless they are questioned. To build an active generation, their problems are to be resolved. It is to be monitored that they should not grow up among hurdles of life. Steps have to be taken so they become aware of their rights. If today’s children get involved into crime, it would be a great threatening to the country. Child parliament has been formed to learn children problems of own. Here, children uphold their problems before the elders.

Access to safe rehabilitation of Children of Sex Workers (CSW)

There are various NGOs who provide shelter-home for CSW. It is a safe house for the children which ensure proper safety and security including food, clothe, treatment, tution etc. Sometimes handi-craft has been taught to CSW. Here various facilities are provided according to children’s choice and interests. Extra-curiculmn activities are taught also. Their performance in cultural program is undoubtedly satisfactory. They always own prize in different cultural compitition not only in local level but also in national level. Some of them tour abroad in several circumstances.

Access to formal institution of Children of Sex Workers (CSW)

Nowadays CSW and their mother get access to the formal institution like school, college, hospital, bank, market, playground, park etc. CSW are now getting admition into govt. and non-govt. school and college. Besides this various trainning have been given to them. So they can fit for and find a prestigious job to earn livelihood. Some of the CSW’ are not interested in studies. They are habituated to the vulnerability of brothel with various corrupted works. But most of the CSW studied in this survey are found interested in study. Every year more than 20 students pass S.S.C. and H.S.C. examination successfully. Their access in market, playground, park is a matter of concern, that, they are not isolated anymore. Evenmore they can open a bank account if they want.

Children’s access to formal education varies by socio-economic status

Educational attainment is part of who are and what we want to become. The same feeling could be felt for the children of the sex workers in Bangladesh. But unfortunately the system of education for these children in Bangladesh is subjected to the dependence of Non- Government organizational sources. Over the years variety of complications grew out of several conditions and factors that affect the process of educational attainment of these students. In spite of all the barriers and obstacles, these students are making their own position and securing a place at Nation. Ministry of Social Welfare is working for CSW through various NGOs. But there is no proper attempt which has been taken till now.

Prospects of mainstreaming of CSW

One of the key issue of mainstreaming is the prospects of mainstreaming of CSW. It affects many aspects in this respect including their possibility to mainstream, reducing hindrances in future, increasing ability to mix with society, prospects of health careand education, attitude of civil society towards them and impacts of psychological counselling in personality construction.

Problems to mainstreaming of Children of Sex Workers

None of the boys and girls wants to go back to their mothers’ place. They want to live in shelter-home because of food, facilities and security. Only, 5% want to live with mothers who are below 5 year old. Other 92% want to live in shelter-home. Some of the participants 32% want to live in shelter-home because of friends and peers, 55.5% percent for all facilities, 10% percent for security and 12.5% percent only likes to live here. But only teenage girls point out that shelter-home ensures their security.

Present educational status of CSW

All of the participants have facilities to access in formal education. Education is a key constituent of individual’s life that affects many aspects of a person including behavior change related aspects. Studies have shown that educational attainment has strong influence on knowledge, attitude and practice. In this study, according to survey findings, a much greater percentage of the 94.50% of 200 participants were recieving institutional education.Among them 79% studying in primary level, while 12.5% was in secondary level. Only 3 percent was studying higher secondary level. Most of them 72% were studying in govt. school, 25% participants were in non-govt. school and 3% participant belonged to other institution like vocational school. Among them 35.5% get access to the library and 64.0% don’t who are mainly from primary level. They are not disturbed by strengers on the way of school because a house-guide was always with them. They are not even annoyed by schoolmates because their identity kept secrate or they 96% have a good understanding with everyone. They are not even neglected or punished by the teacher as because they are CSW.

Socio-economic status of the children of sex-workers

The distribution of CSW by socio-economic characteristics include age, sex, religion, marital status, number of family members, visiting times of mother to children, family income (monthly), educational background of mother and friends or peers. Moreover access of CSW in formal education varies by socio economic status. In total, 200 CSW Regarding the participants’ age, about 19.5 percent of the respondents belonged to the age group of below 8 years. Around 49.5 percent of the respondents was found in the age group 9-12 years, where as, 31% respondents was found above 16 years old. The average age of the respondents was (11.25 ) years with a standard deviation of (3.20 ).

Triangulation of The Children of Sex-Workers in Bangladesh

Intercultural researchers usually use two types of investigation processes. First is quantitative research, which employs numerical indicators to ascertain the relative size of a particular communication phenomenon. The second type of investigation process is qualitative research, which employs symbols and words to indicate the presence or absence of phenomena or categorize them into different types. But professional and academic researchers tend to use triangulation techniques in their research investigations. Triangulation is a kind of `belt and braces`or insurance policy approach that’s used to try to counter the weakness that exist in different methods of data collection and analysis (Walsh, M.2001).

Societal Reaction Theory of Edwin M. Lemert

Although Lemert’s work is related to labeling theory, he was not influenced by the earlier writer’s works. The origins of labeling theory can be traced back to the work of three sociologists’ concepts regarding the concept of self and the effect that tagging or labeling can have on an individual’s self-concept. First, Charles Horton Cooley, in his book entitled Human Nature and the Social Order, presented a concept which he termed the "looking glass self" in which a person will react to others based upon his imagining how he appears to others. According to Cooley, there were three principal elements of the concept: "the imagination of our appearance to the other person; the imagination of his judgment of the appearance, and some sort of self-feeling such as pride or mortification."(p. 152) Additionally, what moves us to pride or shame is the imagined effect of this reflection on the other’s mind. This social self can be called a "looking-glass self."

Erving Goffman The Children of Sex-Workers in Bangladesh

Erving Goffman was one of the twentieth century’s most remarkable practitioners of social science, a sociologist universally acknowledged for his singular talent. Of course, Goffman was not only concerned with developing a general sociology of interaction and experience. Status symbols identify the social capacity to be imputed to a person in ‘ordinary communication’ and thus how others should treat that person. Unlike collective symbols, which draw persons together irrespective of their differences into a ‘single moral community’, status symbols serve to ‘visibly divide the social world into categories of persons … helping to maintain solidarity within a category and hostility between different categories’ (1951: 294). Goffman is fascinated by the possibility that persons may use status symbols falsely to signify a status they do not actually possess. His writing is concerned with the pressures that play upon behaviour as a result of the fact that a symbol of status is not always a very good test of status’. Only then does Goffman restrict his attention to one sub-set of status symbols: class status symbols.

Howard Becker’s Developmental Career Model , The Children of Sex-Workers in Bangladesh

Howard Becker’s developmental career model is a social-process approach. Becker argues that deviance exists in the eye of the beholder, much like beauty. He stresses that no act is intrinsically deviant, but must be defined as such. Becker’s notion of a developmental process is that it precedes the attainment of a deviant identity or career. He uses the process of becoming a marijuana user as an unfolding sequence of steps that lead one to a commitment and participation in a deviant career. He argues that such an identity occurs over time, having both a historical and longitudinal course that involves some subtle changes in the person’s attitude and perspective, as well as their behavior, he argues. “The circumstances that determine movement along a particular path includes properties of both the person and of the situation,” he states. Becker noted that the process of segregation creates "outsiders", who are outcast from society, and then begin to associate with other individuals who have also been cast out.

Frank Tannenbaum -The Children of Sex-Workers in Bangladesh

“The community cannot deal with people whom it cannot define.... The young delinquent becomes bad because he is defined as bad and because he is not believed if he is good.”
--- Frank Tannenbaum

Labeling theory assumes that social control leads to deviance. He focuses on the (linguistic) tendency of majorities to negatively label minorities or those who are seen as deviant from norms. Deviance (and deviants) are seen as labels to describe behaviour and individuals by particular authority figures in society (e.g. police). Social response in the form of social control can lead to delinquent behavior. Labeling a child as a delinquent has negative connotations in itself (it has second and third order effects). The label of a delinquent may result in the child becoming a delinquent (Tannenbaum, F., 1938).

George Harber Mead: Mind Self and Society

According to George H. Mead in his book `Mind Self and Society` We have presented the self from the side of experience; it arises through cooperative activity; it is made possible through the identical reactions of the self and others. In so far as the individual can call out in his own nature these organized responses and so take the attitude of the other toward himself, he can develop self-consciousness, a reaction of the organism to itself. On the other hand, we have seen that an essential moment in this process is the response of the individual to this reaction which does contain the organized group, that which is common to all, that which is called the "me". If individuals are so distinguished from each other that they cannot identify themselves with each other, if there is not a common basis, then there cannot be a whole self present on either side (George H. Mead, 1934).

Theoretical framework of The Children of Sex-Workers in Bangladesh

Labeling theory is closely related to social-construction and symbolic-interaction analysis (Macionis, John J.,et al, 2011). Labeling theory was developed by sociologists during the 1960s. Howard Saul Becker's book Outsiders was extremely influential in the development of this theory and its rise to popularity. Labeling theory holds that deviance is not inherent to an act, but instead focuses on the tendency of majorities to negatively label minorities or those seen as deviant from standard cultural norms. (Labeling theory: Social constructionism, Social stigma, Deinstitutionalization, George Herbert Mead, Howard S. Becker, Labeling).

Competitor analysis of mobile communication in Bangladesh

The telecom industry is one of the few technical industries that have intense internal competition. With majority of the telecom companies of the country being multinational subsidiaries, who have vast finances at their disposal, and the Bangladesh market providing a population of roughly (and unofficially) around 200 million many of whom are intent of carrying more than one subscription, competitive price wars are ever present. During the early years, Pacific Bangladesh Telecom Limited (Citycell) dominated the industry due to the absence of competition (Sheba Telecom struggled horribly to gain market share because of poor infrastructure).

Customers unmet needs and wants from mobile communication in Bangladesh

In our neighboring country, India, 3G mobile service had been introduced in 2008. Bangladeshi people also seeking for it as it allows simultaneous use of speech and data services and higher data rates. In our country, data transfer rate is really slow. People often face buffering problems while using Internet, and so people want higher data transfer rate. People also want 3G because of its higher security features as it allows the UE (User Equipment) to authenticate the network it is attaching to, the user can be sure the network is the intended one and not an impersonator. As people are continuously being exposed to news of technological updates of other countries, the demand is being created for:

Customers’ buying behavior of mobile communication in Bangladesh

The customer's motive for buying telecom products has always been to communicate. In today’s fast pace world of globalization and with friends and family living and working in distant locations, face-to-face and letter based communication just does not suffice. People are always moving around, so land based telephones are also inconvenient. The only way for people to communicate is seemingly through mobile phones or through the Internet. The telecom industry provides services to combine both mobile phones and Internet and at low, affordable costs. Combined with additional services such SMS and advanced services of web applications such as Blackberry, the telecom industry offers a wide range of products and services that provides ample motive to the customer.

Market segmentation of mobile communication in Bangladesh

The act of dividing the existing market into different needs and wants in line with the distinct needs, characteristics and behaviours of these markets in order to serve them with different marketing strategies and mixes (Kotler and Armstrong, 2010). They also added that the ability of the marketers to utilize a proper segmentation is one of the major determinants of their success or failure. While Hill and Jones (2008) argued that segmenting both the existing and potential markets is regarded to be a part of the strategic planning process. They further outlined that when a marketer identify its target markets/customers they will able to produce something which can offer the most value for money. The table on the next page shows available customer segments within the telecom industry.

Customer analysis of mobile communication in Bangladesh

This section mainly covers the need for market segmentation, customer buying behaviour and their emerging needs and wants. Generally speaking, the current trend of the telecom industry in Bangladesh has opened up the opportunity for almost every people of the society to enjoy connectivity through mobile phone (Azam, 2007). After considering the overall scenario of the society now it is very logical and evident to infer that the communication is above all seen as a necessity for us. Actually, here is the implication of the major opportunities for the telecom industry to grow lies and this allow them to increase their investments on IT, advertisements and promotion, more care for customer services, and many more. Along with the growing customers’ needs and as there is an intense competition exists in the market; the competitors are continuously trying to reduce the call rates, offerings various attractive offers make target customers hardly ever able to avoid being exposed to telecom products.

Framework of the factors of mobile communication in Bangladesh

The present study was designed to investigate the prospect of mobile communication in Bangladesh. In order to meet the aims and objectives, the present study has utilized a secondary data analysis on the subject matter. The issues and aspects covered by the present study are; customer analysis, competitor analysis, SWOT and PEST analysis, Porter’s five forces analysis, application of BCG matrix, application of marketing mix, etc. it was assumed that through the utilization of the above strategic tools it would be possible to have a clear picture of the studied topic.

Conceptual clarification of mobile communication in Bangladesh

Mobile phone is a telephone system that works without any wire. Mobile phone is one of the wonderful wonders of science. It has added a new dimension to our life and to communication system. It can be moved easily and quickly from place to place. Through mobile phone we can send message to distance places, play games, know about time, solve work of calculation, and be aware of different kinds of news and views. At present the popularity of the mobile phone is increasing.

Review of mobile communication in Bangladesh

There has been a number of research works conduced on mobile communication and the performance of the industry over the years in Bangladesh which mostly covers the factors of success and failure, effective marketing strategies, determinants of acceptance, risk analysis, relative benefits, problems and challenges for both parties i.e. the service providers and the customers. Also there has been some studies covered the present topic but as the organizational changes is a continuous process and the dynamics of current business environment, conducting a study to identify the very recent trends i.e. the potential of the industry is very much relevant and important.

Background of mobile communication in Bangladesh

Bangladesh was the first South Asian country to adopt cellular technology back in 1993 by introducing Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS). In fact, the first mobile license was issued back in 1989 but it took several years to launch the services. The network coverage and number of subscribers had remained very limited due to exorbitantly high subscription cost and call. In 1996, the then government considering the monopolistic environment prevailing in the sector awarded three GSM licenses aimed at breaking the monopoly and making the cellular technology affordable to the general masses. Since then, the country's cellular industry never looked back, now it has turned into the largest infrastructure provider during the last decade as sub sector within telecom sector. This sub-sector has created new opportunities by generating employment, facilitating education and health services for common people. The mobile communications sector in Bangladesh is one of the fastest growing industries and has helped boost the economic and social development in the country in three main ways:

Prospect of mobile communication in Bangladesh

“Watson, come here: I want you.” This was the first message ever transmitted from one place to another, through a device called telephone. American genius, Alexander Graham Bell (1847-1922) along with his assistant Thomas Watson invented the device. It was March 10, 1876, an important day for human civilization, the first step towards developing means of communication. We’ve come a long way since then. Today, mobile phone is a part of our everyday life. Nowadays, the mobile phone is not only used for making calls, among many other functions it’s used for communicating through text-messages and so called multi-media messages, as well as to connect us to the internet. The opportunities that lie in the mobile communication market seem endless and the growing demand for mobile telephone systems is creating a world-wide market. The telecom industry is nowadays not only by means of millions, but by means of billions. Actors in this industry are seeking the most profitable markets throughout the world.

Economic factors of mobile communication

Economic analysis focuses on the degree of market freedom, together with the availability and cost of labour and resources. It also focuses on the efficiency of financial markets and the general stability of the exchange rate and economy in general. The telecom industry in general is changing very rapidly due to the continuous improvement of technology and the emerging market conditions compel the company owners to think again and again about the production strategies. Growth of the industry is mainly dependent on the price elasticity of demand and supply of the products, capital formation, etc. (Mishra & Purl, 2007). Thus, the influence of economy on industry success is related with economy influence on price level, inflation, etc.

Chinese Civilization (2300 B.C.-221 AD)

This was the most ancient civilization of Far East Asian region. “Ancient Chinese religion was disorganized and vague. Belief in a particular religion was not existed among them. In the earlier stage they worshiped both natural power Inn and divine power Yang. They worshiped their ancestors also. Chou dynastic period was persuaded by religious sensibility, evil spirit, belief in god and goddess. To perform religious ceremonies there had no priest society. State appointed employees executed this duty. The nature of religious activities of Chin Dynasty was different from that of Shang and Chou dynasty. The basis of their religion was polytheism. Hun dynasty brought Buddhism in China.”[1]

Turkey, towards Cultural Reconfiguration

The continuation of the Arab Spring revived Turkey’s traditional ambitions. Today Turkey, which is Sunni-Muslim, has the opportunity to re-control its old Arab colonies. This Turkish re-control can take any form of political alliance between the Muslim Middle East countries with Istanbul being the center of this new alliance.This Turkish ambition may be realized through strengthening the Muslim Brotherhood Movements (MBM) in the different Arab countries.

Cultural Reconfiguration and Revivalism of Islam of Modern Turkey

However, in recent history Turkish politics has been subject to vast changes in its make-up. Since the 1980 military intervention, and perhaps even earlier, the subject of religious revivalism has been in the forefront of the Kemalist republic. While many countries in the Middle East have witnessed religious upheaval in recent past.A new middle class became visible after the 1980’s, accepting the ethical standards and cultural values of the traditional order but also adopted the rational business rules and the profit motive of the capitalist market system.  The new Turkish Islamic middle middle, and upper middle classes are very good examples of capitalistic spirit both as believers and entrepreneurs.