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Accelerating the establishment of national network of nature conservation and reserve which include a full range, types and level of biodiversity and which will have a reasonable distribution and appropriate area coverage.


  • Preparation of national biodiversity strategies and action plan in line with CBD and its appropriate implementation;
  • Strengthening the national institution and capacity building for conservation and management of biodiversity;
  • Promote community based biodiversity conservation and management
  • Preparation of National Biosafety Framework
  • Implementation of effective ecosystem approach community based conservation programme involving stakeholders/local communities;
  • Development of detailed guidelines for freshwater, coastal and marine biodiversity conservation
  • Adaptive measures of adverse impact caused by cyclone and flood and anticipated global warming and sea level rise.

Coastal Biodiversity of Bangladesh

Bangladesh has the world’s longest beach (710 km) along the Bay of Bengal, filled with a rich and unique coastal biodiversity. It has a great natural and because of its outstanding aesthetic value. It also provides multiple renewable resources of direct economic benefits to the nation.



Wetland Biodiversity in the Haor Basin

It is estimated that about 50 percent or more of the land surface of Bangladesh is wetland, consisting of about 700 rivers, creeks, streams, and other water bodies known locally as Haor, baor, heel and khal. There are also the vast estuarine systems and mangrove swamps of the south and southeast regions, as well as innumerable man-made water bodies of various size.

Mangrove forest biodiversity Depletion

Bangladesh has one of the most biologically resourceful and unique forests known as the Sundarbans. The Sundarbans is the largest mangrove forest in the world. Mangrove forest have a unique combination of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The mangrove forests serve as a natural fence against cyclonic storms and tidal surges. Stabilize coastlines, enhance land accretion , and enrich soil near the aquatic environment. The Sundarbans Reserve Forest occupies an area of 601.700 hectares of which 406.900 ha forests. 187.400 ha water (rivers, rivulets, ponds, and canals), 30.100 ha form wildlife sanctuaries, and 4200 hectares are sand bar.


Aquatic invertebrates:
In Bangladesh there are about 362 species of molluscs, of which 336 are marine and 26 are freshwater (Table-1). Law-lying marshlands are the best habitat for them.

Bangladesh earns a good amount of foreign exchange from the export of shrimp and prawn. Shrimp export brings in the most attractive financial returns.

Turtles and Tortoises
About 12 species of reptile are critically endangered, including the estuarine crocodile, Genetic gharial, river terrapin, tortoise, turtle, flying lizard, and reticulated python.

The population of birds in Bangladesh is still very rich, and there is a wide variety in the country (Table-1). However, bird population around the globe are declining at an alarming rate, and that does not exclude Bangladesh. IUCN’s Red list (2000) revealed that among 388 species of resident birds, 41 species are threatened in this country. The primary threats to them are habitat destruction, illegal trade, and over hunting.

Threatened Plants:
A tentative list of about 26 angiosperm species endangered in Bangladesh was prepared by Khan (1991a) as the first step in intensive field studies to locate the species in the wild, the collect relevant data. This is being followed up by screening, preparing status reports, reviewing information, and analysis of the data to assign the species to the IUCN Red list categories (IUCN. 1994). It is still premature to categorically name the endangered plants of Bangladesh until the field surveys are completed. But the current project for a Red Data Book of Bangladesh Plants taken up by BNH is nearing completion. The list of threatened plants has been expanded to more tan 100 number.

Most of the forests of Bangladesh are located in the Greater Districts of Chittagong, Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT), Sylhet, Khulna, Dhaka, Mymensingh, and Tangail. The moist deciduous forests are found in Dhaka. Mymensingh, Rangpur, Dinajpur, and Rajshahi districts. In the coastal areas, plantations have been established on they newly accreted char land.
Throughout the country the forestland are largely devoid of adequate natural cover, except negligible forest pockets. To conserve plants and other biodiversity, the GoB have declared a number of protected areas throughout the country.


Natural forests throughout the country are increasingly being depleted. Various types of development activity, such as dikes, highway, road construction, and other infrastructure development have further intensified deforestation, and destruction of natural forests in Bangladesh. Briefly, the other causes of deforestation are listed below.

Habitat Depletion and Over Exploitation: BIODIVERSITY DEPLETION

The people of Bangladesh largely depend on fish to meet their protein needs, especially the poor in rural areas, several decades ago there was an abundance of fish in this country. But recently, capture fish production has declined to about 50 per cent, with a negative trend of 1.24 per cent per year (Ahmed, 1995b). Despite the constant depletion of the river, canal, and flood plain habitats for years, Bangladesh still holds the worlds most diverse and abundant inland fisheries. But the availability of many species that were very popular locally has been drastically decreased, and some are no longer found in the country.

Major Threats in Bio-diversity for Bangladesh

  • Destruction of habitat
  • Overexploitation of flora and fauna
  • Indiscriminate use of agro-chemicals
  • Industrial waste disposal.
  • Oil spills
  • Encroachment into the natural forests
  • Change in land use pattern and land use conflict



Reasons for Loss of Biodiversity in Bangladesh

  • High population pressure
  • Extreme poverty
  • Natural hazard
  • Deforestation
  • Over exploitation of biological resources
  • Destruction of habitat
  • Water pollution and flood control related activities
  • Salinity intrusion/high salinity
  • Land use change and land use conflict
  • Shifting cultivation in the hills

Biodiversity Depletion

Biodiversity influences people’s economic, social and cultural development and hence their quality of life; The knowledge, cultural traditions, innovations, and management practices of indigenous communities, and the traditional practices of farmers, and rural communities concerning biodiversity constitute the basis for sustaining both biodiversity and human life. However, biodiversity is being threatened in Bangladesh by the destruction of natural habitats due to the failure to recognize the social, economic, and cultural value of biodiversity. This threat and the concomitant destruction are likely to increase as population growth continues. It is believes that the problem may minimized through effective implementation of ecosystem based conservation of biodiversity involving community peoples.

Why I want to study in university of Dhaka

Dhaka University is a world-renowned institution with some of the best academic facilities in Bangladesh. Dhaka University students come from all kinds of schools, backgrounds and countries, and all candidates are considered on the basis of their own merits and potential, making it impossible to define a typical student. However, common to all students are commitment, enthusiasm, and motivation for their chosen area of study, backed by a strong academic record.

Occurrence of multidrug resistant urinary tract isolates of Escherichia coli from women lived in slum area of Dhaka city.

Urinary tract infection (UTI) are common infections; it is estimated that 150 million UTIs occur yearly worldwide, resulting in more than 6 billion dollars in direct healthcare cost(Stamm and Norrby,2001) Urinary tract infection (UTI), which is caused by the presence and growth of microorganism in the urinary tract, is perhaps the single commonest bacterial infection in mankind. Numerous report has also suggested that UTI can occur in both male and female patient with any age with bacteria count as low as 100 colony forming unit (CFU) per milliliters in urine(Akinyemi,etal.,1997).This is common in patients with symptoms of acute urethral syndrome.


Jim Cranston had made plans to conduct performance appraisal inter­views with each of his district managers during 1977. He arranged to have such an interview with Eugene Kirby, one of the district man­agers, in the latter part of June.
Around that time, Cranston had decided to reactivate the position of regional operating manager. While this position had always been in the region, the responsibilities associated with it had declined to almost nothing over the years. After some deliberation Cranston had assigned Mike Mason, a good friend of Gene Kirby's, to the position. Mason supervised five food service district managers.


The central feature of the company's performance appraisal system was an annual interview. Managers were expected to sit down with each of their employees at least once a year (or more often if appropri­ate) and review their performance. The company had recently intro­duced a new form to facilitate planning and conducting these inter­views. (See Exhibit 9-2.) These forms were to be filled out in advance by the person conducting the appraisal. During the interview, salary considerations for the coming year were to be discussed and the deci­sion about the employee's raise communicated. Copies of the form were to be signed by the employee after the performance appraisal in­terview as an indication that he or she had seen the appraisal.


The mid-Atlantic states region of CFS was headed by Vice President James Cranston, who was responsible for serving approximately 80 customers. These 80 accounts were grouped into eight food districts and two vending districts. Each district was supervised by a district manager who reported either to Cranston or to a regional operating manager who in turn reported to Cranston. (An organization chart for the region appears in Exhibit 10-1.) Each of the food districts con­tained from 1 to 14 client accounts which were supervised by unit man­agers and assistant managers; the vending districts were also adminis­tered by district managers.


Colonial Food Services Company (CFS) provided food and refresh­ment to a variety of customers across the country. In its mid-Atlantic states region, the company's primary clients were colleges and prep schools where CFS operated hot food services, cafeterias, and vending machines under contracts which were renewable every one to three years. To have contracts renewed, it was essential to maintain good customer relations; indeed, CFS placed a great deal of value on the in­terpersonal skills of its employees. The company was proud of its abil­ity to recruit, train, and develop new managerial talent.

Recommendation to The Ideal Primary Education for Bangladesh

  • For addressing the quality aspects, decentralization of administration and financial maximum are essential.
  • Undertaking an independent review of quality improvement aspects of mayor primary education development projects is a must. It is necessary to development a comprehensive and coordinate and quality improvement strategy and programme.
  • Existing list of competencies should be recognized and enhanced. Fresh orientation should be designed for teachers and supervisors.

Major problems & issues of primary education

The primary education in Bangladesh is riddled with a lot of problems. It is mostly centralized, quality of teaching is very low, numerous gaps like rural-urban, boys-girls, formal non-formal etc. are aggravating the problems in education. So, the major problems and issues of our primary education may be cited as under:
1. Government the main provider: Bangladesh has one of the largest centralized systems of primary education in the world. Close to half of the primary schools in Bangladesh are financed and run by the govt. Another quarter is registered as non-governmental primary schools. Non-formal schools operated by NGOs also provide primary schooling to about 3 million children.

Present state of primary education of Bangladesh

Bangladesh has made significant progress in primary education in recent years. 97% of school age population in Bangladesh was enrolled in primary schools in the year 2000. The ratio of boys and girls in primary education is 51:49 while the ratio of male and female teachers is 34:66. However, the dropouts over the five year cycle of primary education have declined from 80% in 1970 to 35% at present primary education expenditure per student is $23.