USA has not kept a single policy towards the Islamic nations during and after the Cold War. It has been changed from time to time and nation to nation. During the Cold War, for instance, USA was a supporter of some Islamic movements that acted as an instrument in the fight against the Soviet Union and its supporter, whereas, in other countries America stood- against the same movements. In the 1980s, Washington openly backed the Afghan Mujahedin in their struggle against the Soviet intervention in Afghanistan. They originally received their training from the CIA during that period. Washington tried to arm the Islamic groups in the country. However, after the Cold War in late 1990 America strived to overthrow the Taliban regime, though its people mostly belonged to the Mujahedin.
Whilst, in Iran the CIA overthrew the moderate constitutional government of Mohammed Mosadeq backed by the Islamic movement in 1953, followed by years of support for the brutal government of the Shah, this led directly to the rise of the Islamic revolution in 1979.Therefore, although USA has followed a double standard policy towards the Islamic World, its relationships with the Muslim nations has been based on a kind of hegemonic power in international arena.During the Cold War American, effort was to develop its presence in different parts of the world countries to contain the Soviet Union. Chiefly among them was the Middle East, a main part of the Islamic World. However, the Soviet Union was also willingness to expand its influence in the region. The Middle East was important to the United States for several reasons. First, importance was the strategic location of the region, second, the large oil and gas reserves of this area, and third reason is the Arab-Israel dispute. In addition to the Arab nations, non-Arab countries of the region such as Iran and Turkey were also at the centre of US attention due to several reasons in cold war period.