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Islamic Civilization (622AD-)

“The second medieval civilization was characterized by the politico religious institutions of Caliphate. It stretched from the Iberian Peninsula across North Africa, through the Middle East and Persia and far into India it was geographically the most extensive of these civilizations, and intellectually the most advanced.”[1]

Islamic civilization started its journey under the leadership of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him). Expansion of territory and preaching of religion persisted simultaneously in that era of Caliphate. Abu Bakar afforded to obtain Islamic solidarity among the Arabs. Islamic Empire got authority over Byzantine in the period of third Caliph Umar. Islam was preached in the conquered territory and most of the Christians and Jews of Egypt and Syria embraced Islam.
Umayyad Dynasty (661-750), the earlier Caliphate Empire spread up to Asia Minor, North Africa, Spain, Persia, Central Asia, and India. After Umayyad, Abbasid Dynasty shifted their Capital city to Baghdad, the strategic trade route and centre of communication. Merchants and professional classes emerged as a result. Culture and ideology of Islam broadened with the movement of those groups. “A large number of people of conquered territory converted into Muslim. In that period, the expansion of Islam resulted largely from military achievements.”[2] Warfare and diplomacy were, in Baghdad as in Constantinople, religiously informed. Civil and religious institutions were intimately intertwined.[3]

[1] ibid., 19.
[2] A.K.M. Shahnawas, Bissho Sobbhota- Moddho Juug (World Civilization-the Medieval Period), (Dhaka: Protik Prokashona , 1997), 70.
[3] Torbjorn L. Knutsen, op.cit., 19.