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Nation State Affairs of Westphalia System

At present, there are 195 independent states in the world. Among them only 11 states are recognized as theocratic of which nine states are Islamic, one is Christian and another in Jewish.

Islamic theocracy is divided between monarchy and republic. Monarchies sometimes concern more on intensifying their regime rather than on Sariah. Vatican, the only Christian theocracy does not operate all usual and customary activities. This state is confined within spiritual and ceremonial affairs of Christianity and act as the praiseworthy guide of Catholic Christians. The State of Israel with Jewish majority is deemed as the only real theocracy, while the West akin to expose her as democratic.
Another important point to note, the western society promulgates the promotion of democracy and secular nationalism as the positive and humanitarian development in state level. They portray democracy and secularism as a sign of enriched culture regardless of regional, cultural, historical and religious discrepancy. “In 20th century, Secular nationalism was thought to be not only natural but also universally applicable and morally right."[1]

Even Jeffrey Haynes claims,  “Most political leaders – especially in the developing world – worked from the premise that, irrespective of their own religious beliefs and cultural affiliations, they must necessarily remain neutral in respect of entanglements stemming from particularist religious and cultural claims if they wanted to build successful nation-states and conduct flourishing international relations.”[2]

In this point, it should be kept in mind that, democracy with its capitalist economic configuration is deeply rooted in the western Grico-Roman Empire, Christianity, renaissance, reformation, Treaty of Westphalia, French Revolution, and enlightenment. John Lock, J.J. Rousseau, Voltaire, Montesquieu, Beccaria and Woodrow Wilson as individual contributor has inaugurated and promoted democracy and all of them are western.
Hence, imposed democracy in non western countries of dissimilar culture has been resulted in failure. Apart from west Europe, North America, part of South America and Australia democracy has not been succeeded. Some non western countries (ex-India, Thailand, Philippine, Singapore, North Africa) have reshuffled democracy with their own culture has been succeed to some extent.

In Westphalian world system more or less all states have written constitutions. A large number of these states have taken no idea from religious sources. Those constitutions talk about fundamental human rights or Universal Declaration of Human Rights. In those countries two points may be added about religion, (1) people are free to exercise their religion(s) freely; (2) religion will remain only in the private sphere of life.

Judiciary system of 20th century nation state is founded upon different sources on which religion is one of the important sources. Apart from theocratic states, religion as a source is usually used in civil jurisdictions.

However, in international politics religion is consciously applied and with the transformation of situation and place the role of religion transforms. This topic is briefly discussed in next point.

[1] M. Juergensmeyer, The New Cold War? Religious Nationalism Confronts the Secular State, (California: University of California Press, 1993), 27, http://www.amazon.com/Religious-Nationalism-Confronts-Comparative-Religion/dp/0520086511#reader_0520086511 (accessed February 29, 2012) .

[2] Haynes, op.cit.